Geographical Information

Location: Islamic Republic of Iran is located in the Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, and has borders with Pakistan (909 Km), Afghanistan (936 km), Armenia (36 Km), Turkmenistan (992 km), Azerbaijan (432 km), Turkey (499 km), Iraq and GCC countries around the Persian Gulf like United Arab Emirates (UAE), Kingdom of Saudi, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman.
Area: 1,648,000 sq. km (land: 1.636 million sq km and water: 12,000 sq km)
Climate: dry air and semi-dry air in some parts, some others are moderate and mild. Overall Iran has a significant diversity in climate which is known as a full 4 season country.
Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, Iran ore, lead, Manganese, zinc, Sulfur, Uranium


Population: over 65 million (2007)
Population growth rate: 0.665%
Ethnic groups: Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 29%, Gilaki & Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%
Religions: Shia Muslim 95%, Sunni Muslim 4%, other 1%
Language: Persian & Persian dialects 58%, Turkish & Turkic Dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Baloch 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%


Exports: Petroleum, handicrafts, carpet, fruits, dried fruits (pistachio, raisin, date etc), caviar, petrochemical productions, textiles, garment, foods industry productions.
Imports: Machinery, metal works foodstuffs, pharmaceutical, technical services, chemical products.
Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, fertilizers, caustic soda, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), ferrous and non-ferrous metal fabrication, armaments
Agriculture: Wheat, Rice, Grains, Sugar, Beets, Fruits, Nuts, Cotton, Dairy products, Wool, Caviar
Currency: Iranian Rial - Each 10 Rial is known as 1 Toman
1 USD approximately worth 9200 Rial (March 2008)
Currency Code: IRR
Gross Domestic Productivity (GDP) estimated in 2007:
GDP purchasing power parity: USD 852.6 billion
GDP official exchange rate: USD 278.1 billion
GDP real growth rate: 4.3%
GDP per capita (PPP): USD 12,300
GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 11% - industry: 45.3% - services: 43.7%
Labor force: over 30 million
Investment (gross fixed): 20% of GDP
Budget: USD 64 billion (revenues = expenditures)
Exports worth: USD 76.5 billion FOB
Imports worth: USD 61.3 billion FOB
Most Trade Partners: Germany +10%, China +10%, UAE -10%, France +5%, Italy +5%, South Korea +5%, Russia -5%, Turkey, Spain, India, Pakistan
Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March


Railways: over 8,500 km (March 2008)
Highways: over 180,000 km (March 2008)
Pipelines: Crude oil 5,900 km, petroleum products 3900 km, natural Gas 4,550 km
Ports: Abadan, Ahwaz, Bandar shahid Beheshti, Bandar Abbas, Bandar Anzali, Bandar Mahshahr, Bandar Bushehr, Bandar Khomeini, Bandar Turkmen, Khorramshahr, Nowshahr, Assalouyeh
Airports: 331 (International and Domestic) 2007


Telephones - main lines in use: over 25 million (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular: over 15 million (2007)
Operators: MCI, MTN - Irancell, Taliya (2008)
Internet users: over 18 million (2007)

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